Gurgaon is a leading financial and industrial city of India, situated in the National Capital Region near the Indian capital New Delhi in the state of Haryana. Located 19.9 miles (32 km) south-west of New Delhi, Gurgaon has a population of 1,514,432. Witnessing rapid urbanization, Gurgaon has become the city with the third highest per capita income in India, even though the city grapples with the problem of lack of proper infrastructure and utilities, frequent power outages and rising crime. Today, Gurgaon is center for more than 250 Fortune 500 companies.
Gurgaon has a population of 1,514,432.
The main language spoken in Gurgaon is Hindi, though a segment of the population understands English. The dialect used in Hindi is similar to that of Delhi, and is considered neutral, though the regional influences from the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab adds an accent to the language. However, English is spoken with a thick accent. Since Gurgaon has a large number of international call centres, the employees are usually given formal training for accent reduction. Haryanvi and Punjabi are another popular languages spoken in the city. The other regional languages include Mewati and Braj Bhasha.
Gurgaon was historically inhabited by the Hindu people and in early times, it formed a part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs of Yaduvansi or Jadaun tribe. The Rajputs were defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in 1196, but for two centuries they sturdily resisted the Muhammadian domination and they were subjected to punitive expedition. Under the rule of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, several were converted to Islam. This was followed by the invasion of Timur and the land was ruled by Khanzadas. It was then annexed by Babur. During Akbar's reign, Gurgaon fell within the governing regions of Delhi and Agra. As the Mughal Empire started to decline, the place was torn between contending powers. By 1803 most of it came under the British rule through the treaty of Surji Arjungaon with Sindhia. The town was first occupied by the cavalry unit posted to watch the army of Begum Samru of Sirdhana. It became a part of the district, which was divided into units called parganas. These units were given to petty chiefs for the military service rendered by them. The units were governed by the rules that British kept on changing and eventually these units came under direct control of the British, with the last major change in 1836. Nothing much changed in Gurgaon until the Revolt of 1857. In 1858, it was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to Punjab Province. In 1861, the district, of which Gurgaon was a part of, was rearranged into five tehsils Gurgaon, Ferozepur Jhirka, Nuh, Palwal and Rewari and the modern day city came under the control of Gurgaon teshil. In 1947, Gurgaon became a part of independent India and fell under the Indian state of Punjab. In 1966, the city came under the administration of Haryana with the creation of the new state.
The major highway that links Gurgaon is National Highway 8, the road that runs from Delhi to Mumbai. While the 17.2 miles (27.7 km) Delhi-Gurgaon border-Kherki Dhaula stretch has been developed as an expressway, the rest is expanded to six lanes.
Public transit in Gurgaon is mostly provided by government buses, Rapid Metro and Delhi Metro. Private buses & vans, and shared auto rickshaws also ply in the city.
Operated by Indian Railways, the city has a rail station that forms a part of the larger Indian railways network, where trains connect Gurgaon to Delhi and other important cities in India like Mumbai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad and Jaipur.
Gurgaon bus terminal, managed by Haryana Roadways, is a busy bus station in the city that provides bus connectivity, both private and government, to other cities in Haryana and neighboring states like Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and other cities like Chandigarh.
Gurgaon is served by Indira Gandhi International Airport, though the airport is just outside the city limits and located within the jurisdiction of Delhi near National Highway 8. The airport is one of the busiest airports in India and provides domestic and international air connectivity.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Gurgaon experiences a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The city experiences four distinct seasons - spring (February - March), summer (April - August), fall/autumn (September - October) and winter (November - January), along with the monsoon season setting in towards the later half of the summer. Summers, from early April to mid October, are typically very hot and humid, with an average daily June high temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). The season experiences heat indices easily breaking 110 °F (43 °C). Winters are very cold and foggy with few sunny days, and with a December daytime average of 37.4 °F (3 °C). The Western Disturbance brings some rain in winters that further adds to the chill. Spring and autumn are mild and pleasant seasons with low humidity. The monsoon season usually starts in the first week of July and continues till August. Thunderstorms are not uncommon during the Monsoon. The average annual rainfall is approximately 28.1 inches (714 mm).
Gurgaon is located in Gurgaon district in the Indian state of Haryana and is situated in the south eastern part of the state, and northern part of the country. The city is located on the border with Delhi with New Delhi to its north east. The city has a total area of 282.7 square miles (738.8 km²)
For cellular voice module, most of the mobile network operators in Gurgaon use GSM technology, though a few carriers employ the CDMA platform. The mobile data service is offered through GPRS, CDMA, EDGE, UMTS/HSPA, WiMAX and LTE. Nine mobile phone service providers operate in Gurgaon - Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Reliance, Tata Indicom, Aircel, MTS, Virgin Mobile and BSNL. Other dedicated Wireless Internet service providers operating in Gurgaon are Tikona, You Broadband and Touch Net.
The average land elevation is 711.9 ft (217 m) above sea level.
Hinduism is a predominant religion among the city's population. Gurgaon also includes adherents of Sikhism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and the Bahá'í, among others. There are several places of worship for major religions in Gurgaon, including Hindu temples, gurdwaras, Masjids and churches.
Historically occupied by distinct ethnic groups and traditionally engaged in farming, Gurgaon has seen a 360 degrees change of culture over the years. The city now has significant migrant population from almost all parts of India, who come to work in the city and are employed in all sectors from construction to Information technology across all profiles. The city also has a few international workers who mainly stay on work visa and usually work at significant positions. The melting pot of ethnicities have enriched the local culture, adding a variety to arts, music, cuisine and festivals. A major change happened due to the proximity of the city to Delhi, where the industry and housing projects found a cheaper alternative. Gurgaon does not have any significant LGBT culture.