The Apostolic Prefecture of Jian'ou is a apostolic prefecture located in the city of Jian'ou that is immediately subject to the Holy See. On 8 January 1938, the Apostolic Vicariate of Jian'ou was established and placed under the care of the Dominican Order. In 1950, there were around 1450 faithful in the jurisdiction.
Jian'ou was formerly called Keno. Later it became known as Jianning or Jianningfu from its role as the seat of Jianning Prefecture. This prefecture, along with Fuzhou were the earliest-established Chinese territories in the area and thus their province bears their conjoined names: Fu + Jian. Jianning was once the capital of Fujian and also served as the capital of the kingdom of Yin in AD 943.