||: 3.2 million
||: One Apostolic Prefecture
||: Buddhism 53%, Non-religious 38.6%, Islam 3%, Shamanism 2.9%, Christianity 2.2%, Others 0.4%
Catholicism was first introduced in Mongolia in the 13th century during the Mongol empire, but died out with the demise of the Yuan dynasty in 1368. New missionary activity started after the Second Opium War in the mid-19th century. A mission was founded for Outer Mongolia, giving Mongolia its first Catholic jurisdiction, but it ceased to function within a year when a Communist regime came to power.
With the introduction of democracy in 1991, Catholic missionaries returned and rebuilt the Church from scratch. The Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (CICM) sent its priests to accomplish this mission once the Vatican established diplomatic relations with Mongolia in 1992.
By 1996, Scheut Father Wince Padilla and 150 parishioners were present at the dedication of the first Catholic church in Mongolia. In 1997, the first papal nuncio to Mongolia was named. The new Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul in Ulaanbaatar is built in the traditional Mongolian style.
A Mongolian version of the Catholic Bible was printed mid-2004; it is done in traditional Mongolian writing style and includes common Catholic prayers. The mission runs a kindergarten, English classes, a technical school, soup kitchens, two farms, and a care center for 120 disabled children. The Verbist Center has also taken in 120 street children who had previously been living in Ulaanbaatar's sewer system. A fourth parish was founded in 2007 in Darhan, Mongolia's second-largest city.
There are now 54 missionaries from various countries helping the Church. The arrival of Christian missionaries has been notable since the fall of Communism, and Catholicism grew from no adherents in 1991 to over 600 in 2006, including about 350 native Mongolians.
There are around 1,222 Catholics in the country who are served by three churches in the capital Ulaanbaatar.